Friday, April 8, 2011

History of karachi

{{Infobox settlement
|native_name= {{Nastaliq|کراچی}} {{ur icon}}
ڪراچي {{sd icon}}
|nickname=The Gateway to Pakistan, The City of Bright Lights
|settlement_type=[[City Districts of Pakistan|City District]]
|image_caption=Counterclockwise from top left:
[[French Beach, Karachi]], [[Mazar-e-Quaid]], [[MCB Tower]], [[Karachi Creek Vista]], [[D. J. Science College]], [[Merewether Clock Tower]].

|image_blank_emblem=Karachi logo.svg
|image_map=Karachi Locator Sindh Pakistan.PNG
|mapsize=200 px
|map_caption=Location of Karachi in [[Sindh]] and in [[Pakistan]]
|subdivision_type1=[[Administrative units of Pakistan|Province]]
|seat_type=City Council
|seat=City Complex, Gulshan-e-Iqbal Town
|p1=[[Baldia Town|Baldia]]
|p2=[[Bin Qasim Town|Bin Qasim]]
|p3=[[Gadap Town|Gadap]]
|p4=[[Gulberg Town, Karachi|Gulberg]]
|p5=[[Gulshan Town|Gulshan]]
|p6=[[Jamshed Town|Jamshed]]
|p7=[[Kiamari Town|Kiamari]]
|p8=[[Korangi Town|Korangi]]
|p9=[[Landhi Town|Landhi]]
|p10=[[Liaquatabad Town|Liaquatabad]]
|p11=[[Lyari Town|Lyari]]
|p12=[[Malir Town|Malir]]
|p13=[[New Karachi Town|New Karachi]]
|p14=[[North Nazimabad Town|North Nazimabad]]
|p15=[[Orangi Town|Orangi]]
|p16=[[Saddar Town|Saddar]]
|p17=[[Shah Faisal Town|Shah Faisal]]
|p18=[[SITE Town|SITE]]
|government_footnotes={{cite web|url=|title=Government|publisher=City District Government of Karachi|accessdate=2010-08-22}}
|government_type=City District
|leader_title=[[City Administrator]]
|leader_name=[[Lala Fazal-ur-Rehman|Fazlur Rahman]]{{cite web|url=|title=Administrator Office|publisher=City District Government of Karachi|accessdate=2010-08-22}}
|leader_title1=[[District Coordination Officer]]
|leader_name1=[[Lala Fazal-ur-Rehman|Fazal-ur-Rehman]]
|established_title=Municipal Committee
|established_title1=Municipal Corporation
|established _title=1964
Karachi Divisional Council
|established_title2=Metropolitan Corporation
|established_title3=City District Government
|established_date3=14th August 2001
|area_magnitude=1 E+6
|area_footnotes={{cite web|url=|title=Geography & Demography|publisher=City District Government of Karachi|accessdate=2010-08-22}}
|population_footnotes=[ United Nations World Urbanization Prospects report (online data)] 2010 population estimates for Pakistan
|population_density_km2= auto
|timezone=[[Pakistan Standard Time|PST]]
|area_code_type=[[Dialling codes in Pakistan|Dialling code]]
|postal_code_type=[[Postal codes in Pakistan|Postal code]]
|seal_caption=[[Seal of the City District Government Karachi]]
'''Karachi''' {{Audio|Karachi_pronunciation.ogg|Karācī}} ({{lang-ur|{{Nastaliq|کراچی}}}}; {{lang-sd|ڪراچي}}) is the largest city, main [[seaport]] and the main [[financial centre]] of [[Pakistan]], and the capital of the [[Administrative units of Pakistan|province]] of [[Sindh]]. With an estimated population between 13 million and 15 million, Karachi is one of the world's largest cities in terms of population,{{cite web|url=|title=The largest cities in the world and their mayors|publisher=City Mayors|accessdate=5 February 2010}} the 13th largest [[urban agglomeration]],{{cite web|url=|title=The world’s largest cities and urban areas in 2006|publisher=City Mayors|accessdate=5 February 2010}} and the 4th largest metropolitan area in the world.R.L. Forstall, R.P. Greene, and J.B. Pick, [ "Which are the largest? Why published populations for major world urban areas vary so greatly"], City Futures Conference, (University of Illinois at Chicago, July 2004) – Table 5 (p.34) It is Pakistan's premier centre of banking, industry, and trade and is home to Pakistan's largest corporations, including those involved in textiles, shipping, [[automotive industry]], [[entertainment]], [[the arts]], fashion, advertising, [[publishing]], [[software development]] and [[medical research]]. The city is a major hub of higher education in South Asia and the wider Islamic world.{{cite web|url=|title=Pakistan City Karachi Online Information||accessdate=2010-05-06}}

Karachi is ranked as a [[Global city|Beta world city]].{{cite web|url=
|title=GaWC - The World According to GaWC 2008||date=2009-06-03|accessdate=2009-09-14}}
{{cite web
|url=|title=GAWC World Cities Ranking List||accessdate=2009-09-14}}
It was the original capital of Pakistan until the construction of [[Islamabad]] and is the location of the [[Port of Karachi]] and [[Port Qasim|Port Bin Qasim]], two of the region's largest and busiest ports. After the independence of Pakistan, the city population increased dramatically when hundreds of thousands of Urdu-speaking migrants or Muhajirs from [[India]], [[East Pakistan]] (later [[Bangladesh]]) and other parts of South Asia came to settle in Karachi.

The city is spread over {{convert|3527|km2|abbr=on}} in area, almost four times bigger than Hong Kong. It is locally known as the "City of Lights" ({{Nastaliq|روشنیوں کا شہر}}) and "The bride of the cities" ({{Nastaliq|عروس البلاد}}) for its liveliness, and the "City of the Quaid" ({{Nastaliq|شہرِ قائد}}), having been the birth and burial place of Quaid-e-Azam ([[Muhammad Ali Jinnah]]), the founder of Pakistan, who made the city his home after Pakistan's independence from the [[British Raj]] on 14th August 1947.

{{Main|History of Karachi}}

===Early history===
[[File:CheetahHunt.jpg|thumb|[[Mirza Ghazi Beg]] was the famous [[Mughal Empire|Mughal]] administrator of [[Sindh]] and a renowned historical figure in [[Sindhis|Sindhi]] folklore.]]
The area of Karachi was known to the ancient Greeks by many names: [[Krokola]], the place where [[Alexander the Great]] camped to prepare a fleet for [[Babylonia]] after his campaign in the [[Indus River|Indus Valley]]; 'Morontobara' (probably [[Manora]] island near [[Port of Karachi|Karachi harbour]]), from whence Alexander's admiral [[Nearchus]] set sail; and [[Barbarikon]], a port of the [[Bactria]]n kingdom. It was later known to the [[Arab]]s as [[Debal]] and was inhabited by the [[Bawarij]] [[Sindhi]] [[Muslim]] community with trade links as far as [[Basra]] and [[Sofala]].

Karachi was founded as "Kolachi" by [[Sindhi]] and [[Baloch people|Baloch]] tribes from [[Balochistan (region)|Balochistan]] and [[Makran]], who established a small fishing community in the area.R Asif (2002) [ Lyari Expressway: woes of displaced families]. [[Dawn (newspaper)]]. 8 August. Retrieved on 10 January 2008 Descendants of the original community still live in the area on the small island of Abdullah Goth, which is located near the Karachi Port. The original name "Kolachi" survives in the name of a well-known Karachi locality named "Mai Kolachi" in [[Sindhi]]. [[Mirza Ghazi Beg]], the Mughal administrator of [[Sindh]], is among the first historical figures credited for the development of Coastal Sindh (consisting of regions such as the Makran Coast and the Mehran Delta), including the cities of [[Thatta]], [[Bhambore]] and Karachi.

During the rule of the [[Mughal Empire|Mughal]] administrator of [[Sindh]], [[Mirza Ghazi Beg]] the city was well fortified against [[Portugal|Portuguese]] colonial incursions in [[Sindh]]. During the reign of the [[Kalhora Dynasty]] the present city started life as a fishing settlement when a [[Sindhi]] [[Baloch people|Balochi]] fisher-woman called [[Mai Kolachi]] took up residence and started a family. The city was an integral part of the [[Talpur dynasty]] in 1720.

The village that later grew out of this settlement was known as ''Kolachi-jo-Goth'' (Village of Kolachi in [[Sindhi language|Sindhi]]). By the late 1720s, the village was trading across the [[Arabian Sea]] with [[Muscat, Oman|Muscat]] and the [[Persian Gulf]] region. The local [[Sindhi]] populace built a small fort was constructed for the protection of the city, armed with cannons imported by [[Sindhi]] sailors from [[Muscat]], [[Oman]]. The fort had two main gateways: one facing the sea, known as Kharra Darwaaza (Brackish Gate) ([[Kharadar]]) and the other facing the [[Lyari River]] known as the Meet'ha Darwaaza (Sweet Gate) ([[Mithadar]]). The location of these gates correspond to the modern areas of Kharadar ({{Unicode|''Khārā Dar''}}) and Mithadar ({{Unicode|''Mīṭhā Dar''}}).

===British rule===
[[Image:429068485 5f192dcf9f o.jpg|left|thumb|Dayaram Jethmal College (D.J. College) in 1800s]]
[[File:KhiairportWW2.jpg|thumb|right|[[Jinnah International Airport|Karachi Airport]] in 1943 during World War II]]
After sending a couple of exploratory missions to the area, the [[British East India Company]] conquered the town when [[HMS Wellesley|HMS ''Wellesley'']] anchored off Manora island on 1 February 1839. Two days later, the little fort surrendered.{{cite book|title=Recollections of four years' service in the East with H.M. fortieth regiment|last=Neill|first=, John Martin Bladen|authorlink=|coauthors=|year=1846|publisher=|location=|isbn=|page=|pages=|url=|accessdate=27 Nov. 2009}} The town was later annexed to the [[British Indian Empire]] when [[Sindh]] was conquered by [[Major General|Major-General]] [[Charles James Napier]] in [[Battle of Miani]] on 17 February 1843. On his departure in 1847, he is said to have remarked, "Would that I could come again to see you in your grandeur!" Karachi was made the capital of Sindh in the 1840s. On Napier's departure, it was added along with the rest of Sindh to the [[Bombay Presidency]], a move that caused considerable resentment among the native Sindhis. The British realised the importance of the city as a military cantonment and as a port for exporting the produce of the [[Indus River]] basin, and rapidly developed its harbour for shipping. The foundations of a city municipal government were laid down and infrastructure development was undertaken. New businesses started opening up and the population of the town began rising rapidly. The arrival of the troops of the Kumpany Bahadur in 1839 spawned the foundation of the new section, the military cantonment. The cantonment formed the basis of the 'white' city, where the Indians were not allowed free access. The 'white' town was modeled after English industrial parent-cities, where work and residential spaces were separated, as were residential from recreational places. Karachi was divided into two major poles. The 'black' town in the northwest, now enlarged to accommodate the burgeoning Indian mercantile population. When the [[Indian Rebellion of 1857]] broke out in South Asia, the 21st Native Infantry, then stationed in Karachi, declared allegiance to rebels and joining their numbers on 10 September 1857. Nevertheless, the British were able to quickly reassert control over Karachi and defeat the uprising.
[[Image:Karachi04.jpg|Elphinstone Street c. 1930|right|thumb|Elphinstone Street in 1930]]
In 1864, the first telegraphic message was sent from India to England, when a direct telegraph connection was laid between Karachi and London.Christina P Harris (1969) The Persian Gulf Submarine Telegraph of 1864. [ The Geographical Journal]. vol. 135(2). June. pp. 169–190 In 1878, the city was connected to the rest of British India by rail. Public building projects, such as [[Frere Hall]] (1865) and the [[Empress Market]] (1890), were undertaken. In 1876, [[Muhammad Ali Jinnah]], the founder of [[Pakistan]], was born in the city, which by now had become a bustling city with mosques, churches, courthouses, brothels, paved streets and a magnificent harbour. By 1899, Karachi had become the largest wheat exporting port in the East.[Herbert Feldman [1970]: Karachi through a hundred years: the centenary history of the Karachi Chamber of Commerce and Industry 1860–1960. 2. ed. Karachi: Oxford UP (1960).] Before the year 1880 the majority of the population in Karachi consisted of the indigenous [[Sindhi people|Sindhis]] and [[Baloch people|Balochis]] (who spoke [[Sindhi]] as their mother tongue). Karachi was a small port town and part of [[Talpur dynasty]] in [[Sindh]]. The [[British East India Company]] conquered Karachi on February 3, 1839 and started developing it as a major port. As a result of British rule{{Citation needed|date=January 2011}} the local [[Hindu]] population established a massive presence in the city.

These developments in Karachi resulted in large influx of economic migrants: [[Parsi]]s, [[Hindu]]s, Christians, Jews, [[Marathis]], [[Goans]], [[Armenians]], Chinese, British, [[Lebanese people|Lebanese]] and [[Gujarati people|Gujaratis]]. The population of the city was about 105,000 inhabitants by the end of the 19th century, with a cosmopolitan mix of different nationalities. British colonialists embarked on a number of public works of sanitation and transportation{{mdash}} such as gravel paved streets, proper drains, street sweepers, and a network of trams and horse-drawn trolleys.

===Independent Pakistan===
By the time of independence of [[Pakistan]] in 1947, Karachi had become a bustling metropolis with beautiful classical and colonial European styled buildings, lining the city’s thoroughfares. Karachi was chosen as the capital of Pakistan, which at the time included modern day [[Bangladesh]], a region located more than {{convert|1000|km|abbr=on}} away, and not physically connected to [[Pakistan]]. In 1947, Karachi was the focus for settlement by Muslim migrants from India, who drastically expanded the city's population and transformed its demographics and economy. In 1958, the capital of Pakistan was moved from Karachi to [[Rawalpindi]] and then in 1960, to the newly built [[Islamabad]]. This marked the start of a long period of decline in the city, marked by a lack of development.{{cite web| url= | title=The 1940's|| accessdate=2010-08-26 |archiveurl = |archivedate = 2008-08-22}} Karachi had both a municipal corporation and a Karachi Divisional Council in the 1960s, which developed plans for schools, colleges, roads, municipal gardens, and parks. The Karachi Divisional Council had separate working committees for education, roads, and residential societies development and planning.Government archives, Sindh for Municipality and divisional administration During the 1960s, Karachi was seen as an economic role model around the world. Many countries sought to emulate Pakistan's economic planning strategy and one of them, [[South Korea]], copied the city's second "Five-Year Plan" and World Financial Centre in [[Seoul]] is designed and modeled after Karachi.Planning Commission, The Second Five Year Plan: 1960-65, Karachi: Govt. Printing Press, 1960, p. 393Planning Commission, Pakistan Economic Survey, 1964-65, Rawalpindi: Govt. Printing Press, 1965, p. 212.

The 1970s saw major labour struggles in Karachi's industrial estates (see [[Karachi labour unrest of 1972]]). The 1980s and 1990s saw an influx of refugees from the [[Soviet war in Afghanistan]] into Karachi; they were followed in smaller numbers by refugees escaping from [[Iran]].{{cite web|url=;jsessionid=C8D0B7394F7D074D6832875766C3D91E.tomcat1?fromPage=online&aid=1636848|title=Afghan refugees population in Pakistan - Cambridge Journal||date=|accessdate=2010-05-06}} Severe ethnic tensions between the [[Muhajir (Pakistan)|Muhajir]] and other native groups (e.g. [[Sindhi people|Sindhis]], [[Punjabi people|Punjabis]], [[Pashtun people|Pashtuns]] and others) erupted and the city was wracked with political and ethnic violence.

Today, Karachi continues to be an important [[financial]] and [[industry|industrial]] centre and handles most of the overseas trade of Pakistan and the world, mainly the Asian countries. It accounts for a lion's share of the [[GDP]] of Pakistan, and a large proportion of the country's white collar workers.{{cite web|url=|title=Economy and development - City District Government, Karachi||date=|accessdate=2010-05-06}}
On the other hand, Karachi remains plagued by continuous ethnic violence, mostly between the MQM and the ANP. Furthermore, the city turns to be a haven for the taliban, both for TTP's members as well as for Afghans talibans.

{{Main|Geography of Karachi}}
[[Image:STS087-715-70.JPG|120px|thumb|Satellite view of Karachi]]
Karachi is located in the south of Pakistan, on the coast of the Arabian Sea. Its geographic coordinates are 24°51′ N 67°02′ E. Most of the land consisted largely of flat or rolling plains, with hills on the western and [[Manora]] Island and the Oyster Rocks. The Arabian Sea beach lines the southern coastline of Karachi. Mangroves and creeks of the Indus delta can be found toward the southeast side of the city. Toward the west and the north is [[Cape Monze]], locally known as Raas Muari, an area marked by projecting sea cliffs and rocky sandstone promontories. Some excellent beaches can be found in this area. [[Khasa Hills]] lie in the northwest and form the border between [[North Nazimabad Town]] and [[Orangi Town]]. The Manghopir mountain range lies northwest of Karachi, between [[Hub River]] and [[Manghopir]].

{{Main|Climate of Karachi}}
[[File:July floods karachi (2).jpg|thumb|left|Sunset in Karachi]]

[[File:25 dhow v sign Karachi Nov 76.jpg|thumb|right|Sail boat near the [[Karachi Port]]]]
Located on the coast, Karachi has a [[tropical]]/[[arid climate]] with low average precipitation levels (approx. {{convert|250|mm|abbr=on}} per annum), the bulk of which occurs during the July–August [[monsoon]] season. Winters are warm and dry, while the summers are hot and humid; the proximity to the sea maintains humidity levels at a near-constant high and cool sea breezes relieve the heat of the summer months. Because of high temperatures during the summer (ranging from {{convert|30|-|44|C|F|abbr=on}} from April to August), the winter months (November to February) are generally considered the best times to visit Karachi. December and January are dry and pleasant as compared to the hot and steamy summers that dominate through the late spring (March) to the pre-monsoon season (June).
The city's highest monthly rainfall, {{convert|429.3|mm|abbr=on}}, occurred in July 1967.{{cite web|url=|title=Climate data - Karachi|publisher=Pakistan Meteorological Department, Government of Pakistan|accessdate=2010-08-24}} The city's highest rainfall in 24 hours occurred on 7 August 1953, when about {{convert|278.1|mm|in}} of rain lashed the city, resulting in major flooding.
Karachi's highest recorded temperature is {{convert|47|C|abbr=on}}, which was recorded on June 18, 1979, and the lowest is {{convert|0.0|C|F}}, recorded on 21 January 1934.

{{Weather box
|location=Karachi, Pakistan
|metric first=Yes
|single line=Yes
|Jan record high C=32
|Feb record high C=34
|Mar record high C=41
|Apr record high C=44
|May record high C=48
|Jun record high C=46
|Jul record high C=43
|Aug record high C=37
|Sep record high C=41
|Oct record high C=42
|Nov record high C=38
|Dec record high C=33
|year record high C=48
|Jan high C=25
|Feb high C=26
|Mar high C=29
|Apr high C=32
|May high C=34
|Jun high C=34
|Jul high C=33
|Aug high C=31
|Sep high C=31
|Oct high C=33
|Nov high C=31
|Dec high C=27
|year high C=34
|Jan low C=13
|Feb low C=14
|Mar low C=19
|Apr low C=23
|May low C=26
|Jun low C=28
|Jul low C=27
|Aug low C=26
|Sep low C=25
|Oct low C=22
|Nov low C=18
|Dec low C=14
|year low C=13
|Jan record low C=0
|Feb record low C=3
|Mar record low C=7
|Apr record low C=12
|May record low C=18
|Jun record low C=22
|Jul record low C=22
|Aug record low C=20
|Sep record low C=18
|Oct record low C=10
|Nov record low C=6
|Dec record low C=1
|year record low C=0
|Jan precipitation mm=13
|Feb precipitation mm=10
|Mar precipitation mm=8
|Apr precipitation mm=3
|May precipitation mm=3
|Jun precipitation mm=18
|Jul precipitation mm=85
|Aug precipitation mm=61
|Sep precipitation mm=13
|Oct precipitation mm=0
|Nov precipitation mm=3
|Dec precipitation mm=5
|year precipitation mm=222
|source 1={{cite web|url=|title=Climate data - Karachi|publisher=Pakistan Meteorological Department, Government of Pakistan|accessdate=2010-08-24}}{{cite web|url=|title=World weather - average conditions - Karachi|publisher=BBC|accessdate=2010-08-24}}
|date=August 2010

{{Main|Economy of Karachi}}
[[File:MCB2.jpg|thumb|left|The [[MCB Tower]]]]
[[File:Malir bridge.jpg|thumb|[[Malir River Bridge]]. The Longest bridge in Pakistan.]]

Karachi is the financial and commercial capital of Pakistan. In line with its status as a major port and the country's largest metropolis, it accounts for a lion's share of Pakistan's revenue. According to the [[Federal Board of Revenue]]'s 2006-2007 year book, tax and customs units in Karachi were responsible for 46.75% of direct taxes, 33.65% of federal excise tax, and 23.38% of domestic sales tax.{{cite web|url=|title=Federal Board of Revenue Year Book 2006-2007|accessdate=2009-04-12}} Karachi accounts for 75.14% of customs duty and 79% of sales tax on imports. Therefore, Karachi collects a significant 53.38% of the total collections of the Federal Board of Revenue, out of which 53.33% are customs duty and sales tax on imports. (Note: Revenue collected from Karachi includes revenue from some other areas since the Large Tax Unit (LTU) Karachi and Regional Tax Offices (RTOs) Karachi, Hyderabad, Sukkur & Quetta cover the entire province of Sindh and Balochistan). Karachi's indigenous contribution to national revenue is 25%.
[[File:Karachi at night.jpg|thumb|Karachi at night]]
Karachi's contribution to Pakistan's manufacturing sector amounts to approximately 30 percent.{{cite web|url=|title=Karachi: Step-motherly treatment|author=Pakistan and Gulf Economist|accessdate=2007-10-15}} A substantial part of Sindh’s [[gross domestic product]] (GDP) is attributed to Karachi{{cite web|url=|title=Provincial Accounts of Pakistan: Methodology and Estimates|author=Social Policy and Development Center|accessdate=2009-01-01}}{{cite web|url=|title=Sindh, Balochistan’s share in GDP drops|author=Dawn Group of Newspapers|accessdate=2009-01-01}} (the GDP of Sindh as a percentage of Pakistan’s total GDP has traditionally hovered around 28%-30%).{{cite web|url=|title=Sindh’s GDP estimated at Rs240 billion|author=Dawn Group of Newspapers|accessdate=2009-01-01}}{{cite web|url=|title=Sindh share in GDP falls by 1pc|author=Dawn Group of Newspapers|accessdate=2009-01-01}} Karachi’s GDP is around 20% of the total GDP of Pakistan.{{cite web|url=|title=Karachi Mega-Cities Preparation Project|author=Asian Development Bank|accessdate=2009-01-01}}{{cite web|url=|title=The Karachi Coastline Case|author=The Trade & Environment Database|accessdate=2009-01-01}} A [[PricewaterhouseCoopers]] study released in 2009, which surveyed the [[List of cities by GDP|2008 GDP of the top cities]] in the world, calculated Karachi’s GDP (PPP) to be $78 billion{{cite web|url=|title=Global city GDP rankings 2008-2025|publisher=PricewaterhouseCoopers|accessdate=12 February 2010}} (projected to be $193 billion in 2025 at a growth rate of 5.5%). It confirmed Karachi’s status as Pakistan’s largest economy, well ahead of the next two biggest cities [[Lahore]] and [[Faisalabad]], which had a reported GDP (PPP) in 2008 of $40 billion and $14 billion, respectively. Karachi's high GDP is based on its mega-industrial base, with a high dependency on the financial sector. Textiles, cement, steel, heavy machinery, chemicals, food, banking and insurance are the major segments contributing to Karachi's GDP. In February 2007, the [[World Bank]] identified Karachi as the most business-friendly city in Pakistan.{{cite web|url=|title=World Bank report: Karachi termed most business-friendly|author=Dawn Group of Newspapers|accessdate=2007-10-15}}
[[File:Karachi Chundrigar skyline.jpg|thumb|300px|right|View of the I. I. Chundrigar Road skyline, heart of the financial district of Karachi]]
Karachi is the nerve center of Pakistan's economy. The economic stagnation caused by political anarchy, ethnic strife and resultant military operation during late 1980s and 90s led to efflux of industry from Karachi. Most of Pakistan's public and private banks are headquartered on Karachi's [[Ibrahim Ismail Chundrigar Road|I. I. Chundrigar Road]]; according to a 2001 report, nearly 60% of the cashflow of the Pakistani economy takes place on I. I. Chundrigar Road. Most major foreign [[multinational corporation]]s operating in Pakistan have their headquarters in Karachi. The [[Karachi Stock Exchange]] is the largest stock exchange in Pakistan, and is considered by many economists to be one of the prime reasons for Pakistan's 8% GDP growth across 2005.[ "Pakistan: After the Crash."] ''Business Week''. 22 April 2005. Retrieved on 1 January 2008. A recent report by [[Credit Suisse]] on Pakistan's stock market is a testimonial to its strong fundamentals, estimating Pakistan’s relative return on equities at 26.7 percent, compared to Asia’s 11 percent.Thakur, Pooja. [ "Pakistan Stocks May Advance, Credit Suisse Says."] August 24, 2009.
[[File:KPT HQ.jpg|thumb|left|Administrative building of Karachi Port Trust]]
Recently, Karachi has seen an expansion of [[information technology|information and communications technology]] and [[electronic media]] and has become the software outsourcing hub of Pakistan. [[Call centre]]s for foreign companies have been targeted as a significant area of growth, with the government making efforts to reduce taxes by as much as 10% in order to gain foreign investments in the IT sector.Board of Investment, Pakistan. [ "IT Sector Overview."]. Retrieved 1 January 2008.United Nations. [ "Information Technology Policy of Pakistan: Providing an Enabling Environment for IT Development."]. Retrieved 1 January 2008. Many of Pakistan’s independent [[television in Pakistan|television]] and radio stations are based in Karachi, including world-popular [[Business Plus (TV Channel)|Business Plus]], [[AAJ TV|AAJ News]], [[Geo TV]], [[Kawish Television Network|KTN]],{{cite web|url=|title=Welcome to KTN TV|publisher=KTN|accessdate=2008-02-20}} [[Sindh TV]],{{cite web|url=|title=Sindh TV|publisher=Sindh TV|accessdate=2008-02-20 |archiveurl = |archivedate = January 2, 2008}} [[CNBC Pakistan]], [[TV ONE (Pakistan)|TV ONE]], [[ARY Digital]], [[Indus Media Group|Indus Television Network]], [[Samaa TV]] and [[Dawn News]], as well as several local stations.

Karachi has several large industrial zones such as Karachi Export Processing Zone, SITE, Korangi, Northern Bypass Industrial Zone, Bin Qasim and North Karachi, located on the fringes of the main city.Federation of Pakistan Chambers of Commerce & Industry. [ "Industrial Zones In Pakistan."]. Retrieved 1 January 2008. Its primary areas of industry are textiles, pharmaceuticals, steel, and automobiles. In addition, Karachi has a vibrant cottage industry and there is a rapidly flourishing Free Zone with an annual growth rate of nearly 6.5%. The [[Karachi Expo Centre]] hosts many regional and international exhibitions.Trade Development Authority of Pakistan. [ "Karachi Expo Center."]. Retrieved 1 January 2007. There are many development projects proposed, approved and under construction in Karachi. Among projects of note, [[Emaar Properties]] is proposing to invest $43bn (£22.8bn) in Karachi to develop [[Bundal Island]], which is a 12,000 acre (49 km²) island just off the coast of Karachi.[ "Pakistan agrees $43bn development."] BBC News. 28 September 2006. [[Nakheel Properties|Al Nakheel]] (a Dubai-based company) has prepared a master plan for developing [[Hawke's Bay Town|Hawke's Bay]] with a cost of $68bn. Limitless (another Dubai-based company) will invest $20bn in the Karachi Waterfront Project. (2008) The [[Karachi Port Trust]] is planning a Rs. 20 billion, {{convert|1947|ft|m|0}} high [[Port Tower Complex]] on the [[Clifton, Karachi|Clifton]] shoreline.{{cite web|url=|title=K.P.T. Projects|author=Karachi Port Trust|accessdate=2006-04-17}}{{cite web|url=|title=KPT to build Rs20bn tower complex|author=Dawn Group of Newspapers|accessdate=2006-04-20}} It will comprise a hotel, a shopping center, an exhibition center and a [[revolving restaurant]] with a viewing gallery offering a panoramic view of the coastline and the city.{{cite web|author=Hamdard University Project Office|url=|title=Port Tower Complex, Karachi||date=2006-10-12|accessdate=2010-05-06}}

As one of the most rapidly growing cities in the world, Karachi faces challenges that are central to many developing metropolises, including traffic congestion, pollution, poverty and street crime. These problems continue to earn Karachi low rankings in livability comparisons: ''[[The Economist]]'' ranked Karachi fourth least livable city amongst the 132 cities surveyed{{cite news|url=|title=Where grass is Greener|author=The Economist|accessdate=2007-08-22|date=2007-08-22}} and ''[[BusinessWeek]]'' ranked it 175 out of 215 in livability in 2007, down from 170 in 2006.[§or=&country=undefined&pageNum=1&resultNum=100 Business Week, Karachi Livable Cities Guide]. Retrieved 2008.

==Civic administration==
{{Main|Politics of Karachi|List of mayors of Karachi|List of Union Councils of Karachi}}
[[File:Civic centre Karachi.jpeg|thumb|Civic Centre, the main offices of the City-District Government]]
[[Image:KMCbuilding.jpg|thumb|220px|Karachi Municipal Corporation Building]]
The city-district of Karachi is structured as a three-tier federation, with the two lower tiers composed of 18 [[Tehsil|towns]] and 178 [[Union councils of Pakistan|union councils]],{{cite web|url=|title=CDGK Towns|publisher=City District Government of Karachi|accessdate=2010-08-24}} with each tier focussed on elected councils with some common members to provide "''vertical linkage''" within the federation.{{cite web|url=|title=Local Government|publisher=National Reconstruction Bureau, Government of Pakistan|accessdate=2010-08-24}} Each union council comprises thirteen members elected from specified electorates: four men and two women elected directly by the general population; two men and two women elected by peasants and workers; one member for minority communities; two members are elected jointly as the union mayor (''nazim'') and deputy union mayor (''naib nazim'').{{cite web|url=|title=Composition of the Union Council|publisher=National Reconstruction Bureau, Government of Pakistan|accessdate=2010-08-24}} Each town council comprises all of the deputy union mayors in the town as well as elected representatives for women, peasants and workers, and minorities.{{cite web|url=|title=Tehsil and Town Councils|publisher=National Reconstruction Bureau, Government of Pakistan|accessdate=2010-08-24}} The district council comprises all of the union mayors in the district as well as elected representatives for women, peasants and workers, and minorities.{{cite web|url=|title=Zila Council|publisher=National Reconstruction Bureau, Government of Pakistan|accessdate=2010-08-24}} Each council also includes up to three council secretaries and a number of other civil servants. The main purpose of all of the councils is to provide municipal services, with specific responsibilities allocated to the district council,{{cite web|url=|title=Functions and powers of Zila Council|publisher=National Reconstruction Bureau, Government of Pakistan|accessdate=2010-08-24}} the town councils,{{cite web|url=|title=Powers and Functions of the Tehsil Municipal Administration|publisher=National Reconstruction Bureau, Government of Pakistan|accessdate=2010-08-24}} and the union councils.{{cite web|url=|title=Powers and Functions of the Union Administration|publisher=National Reconstruction Bureau, Government of Pakistan|accessdate=2010-08-24}} There are also six military [[cantonment]]s which are administered by the [[Pakistan Army]] and do not form part of the City District Government.

The current system of government was brought into existence by the Local Government Ordinance of 14 August 2001, the latest in a series of administrative setups for Karachi. The first form of government was a conservancy board established in 1846 to control the spread of cholera in the city.{{cite web|url=|title=CDGK History|publisher=City-District Government of Karachi|accessdate=2010-08-24}} The board became a municipal commission in 1852, and a municipal committee the following year. The City of Karachi Municipal Act of 1933 transformed the city administration into a municipal corporation with a mayor, a deputy mayor and 57 councillors. In 1948, the [[Federal Capital Territory (Pakistan)|Federal Capital Territory]] of Pakistan was created, comprising approximately {{convert|2103|km2|abbr=on}} of Karachi and surrounding areas, but this was merged into the province of [[West Pakistan]] in 1961.{{cite web|url=|title=Pakistan Provinces||accessdate=2010-08-24}} However, the municipal corporation remained in existence and in 1976 became a metropolitan corporation, followed by the creation of zonal municipal committees, which lasted until 1994. Two years later the metropolitan area was divided into five districts, each with a municipal corporation.

[[Naimatullah Khan]] was the first Nazim of Karachi and [[Shafiq-Ur-Rehman Paracha]] was the first district coordination officer (DCO) of Karachi, Paracha even served as the last Commissioner of Karachi. Naimatullah Khan focused on building new parks, providing entertainment outlets to the youth (to celebrate events like [[Valentine's Day]]) and families (to celebrate events like [[Eid ul-Fitr|Eid]]). In the elections of 2005, [[Syed Mustafa Kamal]] was elected City Nazim of Karachi to succeed Naimatullah Khan, and [[Nasreen Jalil]] was elected as the City Naib Nazim. Mustafa Kamal was previously the provincial minister for [[information technology]] in Sindh. In 2010, Fazlur Rahman became caretaker administrator of the CDGK, replacing the Mustafa Kamal.{{cite web|url=|title=Mustafa Kamal announces city reinforcement projects|publisher=Dawn Group of Newspapers|accessdate=2006-10-10}}

{|class="toccolours" style="margin:0 auto; backgrond:none;"

  1. [[Lyari Town]]
  2. [[Saddar Town]]
  3. [[Jamshed Town]]
  4. [[Gadap Town]]
  5. [[SITE Town]]
  6. [[Kemari Town]]
  7. [[Shah Faisal Town]]
  8. [[Korangi Town]]
  9. [[Landhi Town]]
  10. [[Bin Qasim Town]]
  11. [[Malir Town]]
  12. [[Gulshan Town]]
|style="background:white; padding:0 1em;" class="toccolours"|[[File:Karachi admin.PNG|350px]]
  1. [[Liaquatabad Town]]
  2. [[North Nazimabad Town]]
  3. [[Gulberg Town, Karachi|Gulberg Town]]
  4. [[New Karachi Town]]
  5. [[Orangi Town]]
  6. [[Baldia Town]]
:A. [[Karachi Cantonment]]
:B. [[Clifton Cantonment]]
:C. [[Korangi Creek Cantonment]]
:D. [[Faisal Cantonment]]
:E. [[Malir Cantonment]]
:F. [[Manora Cantonment]]

{{Main|Demographics of Karachi}}

|title=Population growth
Source:{{cite web|url=|title=Population size and growth of major cities|publisher=Population Census Organization, Government of Pakistan|accessdate=2010-08-24}}
Note: The 1998 census showed a population of about 9 million but this did not include workers living in Karachi but registered as living elsewhere in Pakistan by the [[National Database and Registration Authority]] as well as large numbers of [[Afghan refugees]], [[Iranian peoples|Iranians]] and others (Indians, Nepalis, Burmese, Bangladeshis).

†Huge population rise between 1941 and 1951 due to
large scale migration after independence in 1947


[[Image:Karachi population.svg|thumb|left|Trend of population growth (in millions) in Karachi]]
Karachi's inhabitants, locally known as Karachiites, are a cosmopolitan population composed of many ethno-linguistic groups from other parts of Pakistan and refugees from several countries.{{cite web|url=|title=Karachi's Invisible Enemy|author=Sharmeen Obaid-Chinoy|publisher=PBS|date=2009-07-17|accessdate=2010-08-24}} The population and demographic distribution of the city has undergone considerable changes over the past 150 years. At the end of the 19th century, the population of the city was about 105,000, with a gradual increase over the next few decades, reaching more than 400,000 on the eve of independence. Current estimates of the population range from 12 to 18 million,{{cite news|url=|title=The Urban Frontier — Karachi|publisher=NPR|date=June 2, 2008|accessdate=2010-01-17}}{{cite web|url=|title=Karachi population to hit 27.5 million in 2020|publisher=Dawn Media Group|date=2007-07-10|accessdate=2010-08-24}} of which an estimated 90% are migrants from different backgrounds. The city's population is estimated to be growing at about 5% per year (mainly as a result of internal rural-urban [[Human migration|migration]]), including an estimated 45,000 migrant workers coming to the city every month from different parts of Pakistan.{{cite web|url=|title=Karachi turning into a ghetto|date=2006-01-16|publisher=Dawn Media Group|accessdate=2010-08-24}}

The earlist inhabitants of the area that became Karachi included [[Baloch people|Baloch]] in the west, and [[Sindhi people|Sindhi]] tribes such as the [[Jokhio]], [[Mallaah]] and [[Jats of Sindh|Jath]] in the east. Before the [[partition of India]], the population of the city included large numbers of [[Hindu]]s and [[Sikh]]s, and although communal riots in 1947 caused many of them to leave for India, there is still a significant Hindu community in Karachi. The city was, and still is home to a large community of [[Gujarati Muslim]]s, who were one of the earliest settlers in the city, and still form the majority in [[Saddar Town]]. Important [[Gujarati Muslim]] communities in the city include the [[Memon people|Memon]], [[Chhipa]], [[Ghanchi (Muslim)|Ghanchi]], [[Khoja]], [[Bohra]] and [[Tai (caste)|Tai]]. Other early settlers included the [[Parsi]]s, also originally from [[Gujarat]], [[Konkani Muslims]] from [[Mumbai]] (settled in Kokan Town), [[Goan Catholics]] and [[Anglo-Indians]]. The city was also home to small communities of [[Armenians in Pakistan|Armenians]] and Bene Israel [[History of the Jews in Pakistan|Jews]]. Most Jews and Armenians left the city in the 1950s, after independence, but there are still small communities of [[Parsi]]s, [[Goan Catholics]] and [[Anglo-Indians]] in the city.

The [[partition of India]] saw the settlement of the what is now the largest ethnic community in the city, the [[Muhajir people|Muhajir]]s."[ Karachi violence stokes renewed ethnic tension]". IRIN Asia. Retrieved 2007-05-17. Most properties vacated by fleeing Hindus were granted to [[Urdu]]-speaking Muslim migrants who had fled India. Known as [[Muhajir people|Muhajirs]], their descendants now form the majority of Karachi's residents. Partition also saw the settlement of a large number of [[Punjabi people|Punjabi]] [[Muslim]]s from [[East Punjab]], [[Kashmiri Muslims]] from the [[Kashmir Valley]], and further immigration of [[Gujarati Muslim]]s and [[Konkani Muslims]] from [[India]]. The [[Pashtun people|Pashtuns]], originally from [[Khyber Pakhtunkhwa]] and northern [[Baluchistan]] are now the city's second-largest ethnic group.{{cite web|url=|title=In a city of ethnic friction, more tinder|publisher=The National|date=2009-08-24|accessdate=2010-08-24}} With an estimated 7 million Pashtuns, including approximately 50,000 registered [[Afghan refugees]],{{cite web|url=|title=UN body, police baffled by minister’s threat against Afghan refugees|publisher=Dawn Media Group|date=2009-02-10|accessdate=2010-08-24}} Karachi hosts the largest [[Pashtun diaspora|Pashtun population]] in the world, far outnumbering the cities in the Pashtun heartlands like [[Kandahar]], [[Peshawar]] and [[Quetta]]. Many of these Pashtuns have been resident in Karachi for decades, and as a result, some no longer speak Pashto fluently, and instead primarily speak Urdu or English — especially those from wealthier communities. In addition, a small number of the Muhajir community (such as the [[Rohilla]] community) in Karachi claim to be by origin ethnic Pashtuns.

After the [[Indo-Pakistani War of 1971]], thousands of [[Bihari people|Biharis]] and [[Bengali people|Bengalis]] from [[Bangladesh]] arrived in the city, and today Karachi is home to 1 to 2 million ethnic Bengalis from Bangladesh,{{cite web|url=\12\17\story_17-12-2006_pg12_3|title=Falling back|publisher=Daily Times|accessdate=2010-08-24}}{{cite web|url=|title=Chronology for Biharis in Bangladesh|publisher=Center for International Development and Conflict Management, University of Maryland|date=2007-01-10|accessdate=2010-05-06}} many of whom migrated in the 1980s and 1990s and now work as fishermen. They were followed by [[Rohingya people|Rohingya refugees]] from [[Burma]],{{cite web|url=|title=From South to South: Refugees as Migrants: The Rohingya in Pakistan||date=2008-05-12|accessdate=2010-08-24}} other Burmese Muslims and [[Expulsion of Asians from Uganda|Asian refugees]] from [[Uganda]]. Many other refugees from [[Iran]] and the former Soviet Union have also settled in the city as economic migrants. There also exists a economic elite of Sinhalese from Sri Lanka. One under-privileged ethnic group are the [[Siddi]]s (Negro - Sheedi) who trace their roots to African slaves from earlier centuries.{{cite web|url=|title=Sheedis have been hurt most by attitudes|publisher=Dawn Media Group|date=2008-06-23|accessdate=2010-08-24}}

According to the census of 1998, the religious breakdown of the city is as follows: Muslim (96.45%); Christian (2.42%); Hindu (0.86%); Ahmadi (0.17%) and others (Parsis, Sikhs, Bahá'ís, Jews and Buddhists) (0.10%).{{cite web|url=|title=Urban Slums Reports: The case of Karachi, Pakistan|author=Arif Hasan, Masooma Mohibur|format=PDF|date=2009-02-01|accessdate=2010-08-24}}

According to the census of 1998, the linguistic distribution of the city was : [[Urdu]]: 48.52%; [[Punjabi language|Punjabi]]: 13.94%; {{lang-ps|11.42%}}; {{lang-sd|7.22%}}; [[Balochi language|Balochi]]: 4.34%; [[Saraiki language|Saraiki]]: 2.11%; others: 12.4%. The others include [[Dari (Eastern Persian)|Dari]], [[Gujarati language|Gujarati]], Dawoodi [[Bohra]], [[Memon language|Memon]], [[Marwari language|Marwari]], [[Brahui language|Brahui]], Makrani, [[Khowar language|Khowar]], [[Burushaski language|Burushaski]], [[Arabic language|Arabic]], [[Persian language|Persian]] and [[Bengali language|Bengali]].[ Karachi Demographics]

==Arts and culture==
{{Main|Culture of Karachi}}
[[File:Mohatta Palace.jpg|thumb|[[Mohatta Palace]]]]
[[Image:Karachi - Pakistan-market.jpg|thumb|A vendor at Sunday textile market of Karachi]]
[[Image:Khi National Museum.jpg|thumb|left|[[National Museum of Pakistan]]]]

Karachi is home to some of Pakistan's important cultural institutions. The [[National Academy of Performing Arts]],{{cite web|url=|title=Welcome to National Academy of Performing Arts|author=National Academy of Performing Arts|accessdate=2006-04-17}} located in the newly renovated [[Hindu Gymkhana]], offers a two-year diploma course in performing arts that includes classical music and contemporary theatre. The [[All Pakistan Music Conference]], linked to the 45-year-old similar institution in [[Lahore]], has been holding its Annual Music Festival since its inception in 2004. The Festival is now a well-established feature of the city life of Karachi that is attended by more than 3000 citizens of Karachi as well as people from other cities.The All Pakistan Music Conference [ History of festival] Retrieved on 1 January 2008 The National Arts Council (''Koocha-e-Saqafat'') has musical performances and [[mushaira]] (poetry recitations). The [[Kara Film Festival]] annually showcases independent Pakistani and international films and documentaries. Karachi is home to many theatre, music and dance performance groups, such as Thespianz Theater, a youth-based, non-profit performing arts group.{{Citation needed|date=October 2010}}

Karachi has many museums that present exhibitions on a regular basis, including the [[Mohatta Palace]] and the [[National Museum of Pakistan]]. [[Karachi Expo Centre]] hosts many regional and international exhibitions.

The everyday lifestyle of Karachi differs substantially from that of other Pakistani cities and towns. The culture of Karachi is characterized by the blending of South Asian, Middle Eastern, Central Asian and Western influences, as well as its status as a major international business centre. After the independence of Pakistan, Karachi received a large number of refugees from all over India, whose influence is now evident in the city's different sub-cultures. Karachi hosts the largest middle class stratum of the country.{{Citation needed|date=January 2009}}

{{See also|Pakistani architecture|List of tallest buildings in Karachi}}
[[File:Frere hall Karachi.jpg|thumb|[[Frere Hall]], Karachi]]
Karachi has a rich collection of buildings and structures of varied [[architectural style]]s. Many [[modern architecture|modern]] [[high-rise]] buildings are under construction. The downtown districts of [[Saddar]] and [[Clifton, Karachi|Clifton]] contain a variety of early 20th-century architecture, ranging in style from the [[Neoclassical architecture|neo-classical]] [[Karachi Port Trust|KPT]] building to the [[Sindh High Court]] Building. During the period of British rule, classical architecture was preferred for monuments of the [[British Raj]]. {{Citation needed|date=January 2009}} Karachi acquired its first neo-Gothic or Indo-Gothic buildings when [[Frere Hall]], [[Empress Market]] and [[Saint Patrick's Cathedral, Karachi|St. Patrick's Cathedral]] were completed. The [[Mock Tudor]] architectural style was introduced in the [[Karachi Gymkhana]] and the Boat Club. [[Neo-Renaissance architecture]] was popular in the 19th century and was the language for St. Joseph's Convent (1870) and the [[Sind Club]] (1883).{{cite web| url= | title=Heritage Revisited|| accessdate=2010-08-26 |archiveurl = |archivedate = 2008-08-22}} The classical style made a comeback in the late nineteenth century, as seen in [[Lady Dufferin Hospital]] (1898){{cite web| url= | title=Public Arch 5|| accessdate=2010-08-26 |archiveurl = |archivedate = 2007-10-24}} and the [[Karachi Cantonment Railway Station|Cantt. Railway Station]]. While [[Italianate]] buildings remained popular, an eclectic blend termed [[Indo-Saracenic]] or Anglo-Mughal began to emerge in some locations.

The local mercantile community began acquiring impressive mercantile structures. Zaibunnisa Street in the [[Saddar]] area (known as Elphinstone Street in British days) is an example where the mercantile groups adopted the [[Italianate]] and [[Indo-Saracenic]] style to demonstrate their familiarity with Western culture and their own. The [[Hindu Gymkhana]] (1925) and [[Mohatta Palace]] are the example of Mughal revival buildings.{{cite web| url= | title=Public Architecture|| accessdate=2010-08-26 |archiveurl = |archivedate = 2008-04-15}} The Sindh Wildlife Conservation Building, located in Saddar, served as a Freemasonic Lodge until it was taken over by the government. There are talks of it being taken away from this custody and being renovated and the Lodge being preserved with its original woodwork and ornate wooden staircase.{{cite web|url=\09\30\story_30-9-2008_pg12_9|title=Culture department takes notice of Freemason Lodge Building|author=Daily Times|accessdate=2009-01-16}}

In recent years, a large number of architecturally distinctive, even eccentric, buildings have sprung up throughout Karachi. Notable examples of contemporary architecture include the [[Pakistan State Oil]] Headquarters building and the [[Karachi Financial Towers]]. The city has numerous examples of modern [[Islamic architecture]], including the [[Aga Khan University]] hospital, [[Masjid e Tooba]], Faran Mosque, Bait-ul Mukarram Mosque, Quaid's Mausoleum, and the [[Textile Institute of Pakistan]]. One of the unique cultural elements of Karachi is that the residences, which are two- or three-story [[townhouse]]s, are built with the front yard protected by a high brick wall. [[Ibrahim Ismail Chundrigar Road]] features a range of extremely tall buildings. The most prominent examples include the [[Habib Bank Plaza]], PRC Towers and the [[MCB Tower]] which is the tallest skyscraper in [[Pakistan]].{{cite web|url=|title=MCB Tower, the tallest skyscraper of Karachi||date=|accessdate=2010-05-06}}

Many more high-rise buildings are under construction, such as Centre Point near [[Korangi Industrial Area]], [[IT Tower]], [[Sofitel]] Tower Karachi and Emerald Tower. The Government of Sindh recently{{When|date=December 2009}} approved the construction of two high-density zones, which will host the new city skyline.

===Fashion, shopping and entertainment===
[[File:FPW 2009 karachi.jpg|left|thumb|Pakistan Fashion Week which took place in Karachi, 2009]]

[[File:Karachibeach with new fountain jet.jpeg|220px|thumbnail|Karachi's [[Port Fountain]] is the world's second tallest]]
Karachi has always been proactive in organizing large events but because of the political and economic crisis in the country, activities have recently been slowed down. Karachi continues to host many different cultural and fashion shows. In 2009 a four-day-long fashion show was organized in Karachi's luxury Marriott hotel.{{cite news|last=Neysmith|first=Elettra|url=|title=South Asia | 'Fashion Week' first for Pakistan|publisher=BBC News|date=2009-11-06|accessdate=2010-05-06}} Karachi has many glitzy shopping malls in the Clifton area, Tariq Road, Gulshan-e-Iqbal and Hyderi shopping area, such as Park Towers, The Forum, Dolmen Mall and Millenium Mall. Zamzama Boulevard is known for its designer stores and many cafes. There are many [[bazaar]]s in Karachi selling different merchandise. The famous bazaars include [[Bohri Bazaar]], [[Soldier Bazaar]], and [[Urdu Bazaar]]. Foreign clothes brands and famous Pakistani fashion labels (such as Amir Adnan, Aijazz, Rizwan Beyg, Deepak Perwani, Shayanne Malik, Maria B, Khaadi, Sputnik Footwear, Metro Shoes, English Boot House, Cotton & Cotton, Men's Store and Junaid Jamshed) are present in shopping districts of the city. The newly built shopping center [[Port Grand Complex|Port Grand Retail and Entertainment Complex]] is located at [[Port of Karachi]] near [[Native Jetty Bridge]].

{{Main|List of sports venues in Karachi}}

[[File:Nat Std01.JPG|thumb|[[National Stadium]]]]
[[File:Karachi Golf Club3.jpg|thumb|left|[[Karachi Golf Club]], one of the largest golf clubs in Karachi]]
Cricket is the most popular Sport in Karachi, which is played in many small grounds around the city, as well as on city streets at night and on weekends. [[Gully cricket]] is played in the narrow by-lanes of the city. The [[National Stadium, Karachi|National Stadium]] is the city's only world-class cricket stadium, and is the second largest cricket stadium in Pakistan after the [[Gaddafi Stadium]] in [[Lahore]]. The inaugural first-class match at the National Stadium was played between Pakistan and India on 26 February 1955 and since then Pakistani national cricket team has won 20 of the 41 [[Test cricket|Test matches]] played at the National Stadium.{{cite web|url=|title=Test Matches played on National Stadium, Karachi|publisher=Cricket Archive|accessdate=2010-08-26}} Since then, instability caused by terrorism has mean't that non-Asian sides have refused to play in Karachi. The first [[One Day International]] at the National Stadium was against the West Indies on 21 November 1980, with the match going to the last ball. The national team has been less successful in such limited-overs matches at the ground, including a five year stint between 1996 and 2001, when they failed to win any matches. The city has been host to a number of successful domestic cricket teams including Karachi,{{cite web|url=|title=First-Class matches played by Karachi|publisher=Cricket Archive|accessdate=2010-08-26}} Karachi Blues,{{cite web|url=|title=First-Class matches played by Karachi Blues|publisher=Cricket Archive|accessdate=2010-08-26}} Karachi Greens,{{cite web|url=|title=First-Class matches played by Karachi Greens|publisher=Cricket Archive|accessdate=2010-08-26}} and Karachi Whites.{{cite web|url=|title=First-Class matches played by Karachi Whites|publisher=Cricket Archive|accessdate=2010-08-26}} The National Stadium hosted two group matches (Pakistan v. South Africa on 29 February and Pakistan v. England on 3 March), and a quarter-final match (South Africa v. West Indies on 11 March) during the [[1996 Cricket World Cup]].{{cite web|url=|title=Fixtures|publisher=CricInfo|accessdate=2010-08-26}}

The city has also hosted seven editions of the National Games of Pakistan, most recently in 2007.{{cite web|url=|title=National Games|publisher=Pakistan Sports Board|accessdate=2010-08-26}} Sports like badminton, volleyball and basketball are popular in schools and colleges. Football is especially popular in [[Lyari Town]], which has a large Afro-Balochi community and has always been a football-mad locality in Karachi. The [[Peoples Football Stadium]] is perhaps the largest football stadium in Pakistan with respect to capacity, easily accommodating around 40,000 people. In 2005, the city hosted the [[SAFF Championship]] at this ground, as well as the [[Geo Super Football League 2007]], which attracted capacity crowds during the games. The city has facilities for hockey (the [[Hockey Club of Pakistan]], UBL Hockey Ground), boxing (KPT Sports Complex), squash ([[Jahangir Khan]] Squash Complex) and polo. Marinas and boating clubs add to the diverse sporting activities in Karachi.

;Professional Karachi teams
{| class="wikitable sortable"
! scope="col" | Club
! scope="col" | League
! scope="col" | Sport
! scope="col" | Venue
! scope="col" | Established
! scope="row" style="font-weight: normal; text-align: left;" | [[Karachi Dolphins]]
| [[Twenty-20 Cup]]
| [[Cricket]]
| [[National Stadium, Karachi|National Stadium]]
| 2004
! scope="row" style="font-weight: normal; text-align: left;" | [[Karachi Zebras]]
| [[Twenty-20 Cup]]
| [[Cricket]]
| [[National Stadium, Karachi|National Stadium]]
| 2004
! scope="row" style="font-weight: normal; text-align: left;" | [[Karachi Bazigar|Karachi Energy]]
| [[Geo Super Football League|SFL]]
| [[Football]]
| [[Peoples Football Stadium]]
| 2007
! scope="row" style="font-weight: normal; text-align: left;" | [[HBL FC|Karachi HBL FC]]
| [[Pakistan Premier League|PPL]]
| [[Football]]
| [[Peoples Football Stadium]]
| 1975

{{Main|Education in Karachi|List of colleges in Karachi|List of universities in Karachi}}

[[Image:Uit 1.jpg|thumb|right|[[Usman Institute of Technology]]]]
[[File:PNEC.jpg|thumb|[[National University of Sciences and Technology, Pakistan|National University of Sciences and Technology]], Karachi Campus]]
In 2008-09, the city's literacy rate was estimated at 77%, the 4th highest in the country, after [[Islamabad]], [[Rawalpindi]] and [[Jhelum]] with a [[gross enrollment ratio]] of 111%, the highest in [[Sindh]].{{cite web|url=|title=Federal Bureau of Statistics||date=|accessdate=2010-05-06}}

Education in Karachi is divided into five levels: [[primary education|primary]] (grades one through five); [[middle school|middle]] (grades six through eight); [[Secondary education|high]] (grades nine and ten, leading to the [[Secondary School Certificate]]); [[Secondary education|intermediate]] (grades eleven and twelve, leading to a Higher Secondary School Certificate); and university programs leading to [[undergraduate education|graduate]] and [[Graduate school|advanced]] degrees. Karachi has both public and private educational institutions. Most educational institutions are gender-based, from primary to university level.

[[Karachi Grammar School]] is the oldest school in Pakistan and has educated many Pakistani businessmen and politicians. The [[Narayan Jagannath High School]] in Karachi, which opened in 1855, was the first government school established in Sindh. Other well-known schools include the Hamdard Public School, Education Bay [EBay] school located in karachi (for higher education) Army Public School (C.O.D.), White House Grammar School, CAA Model School, Beacon Askari School & College, [[British Overseas School]], L'ecole for Advanced Studies, Generation's school, the [[The CAS School, Karachi|CAS School]], Bay View, [[Karachi American School]], Aga Khan Higher Secondary School, the Froebel Education Centre (FEC), The Paradise School and College, Little Folks Secondary School, [[Habib Public School]], Mama Parsi Girls Secondary School, [[B. V. S. Parsi High School]], Civilizations Public School, The Oasys School, [[Avicenna School]], [[The Lyceum School]], Ladybird Grammar School, [[The City School (Pakistan)|The City School]], ABC Public School, [[Beaconhouse School System]], The Educators schools, [[Shahwilayat Public School]], [[St Patrick's High School, Karachi|St Patrick's High School]], [[St Paul's English High School]], [[St Joseph's Convent School (Karachi)|St Joseph's Convent School]], St Jude's High School, [[St Michael's Convent School]], [[Foundation Public School]], and St Peter's High School.

[[Image:Hindu Gymkhana Karachi.jpeg|thumb|left|[[National Academy of Performing Arts]]]]
The [[University of Karachi]], known as KU, is Pakistan's largest university, with a student population of 24,000 and one of the largest faculties in the world. It is located next to the [[NED University of Engineering and Technology]], the country's oldest engineering institute. In the private sector, The [[National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences]] (NUCES-FAST), one of Pakistan's top universities in computer education, operates two campuses in Karachi. [[Sir Syed University of Engineering and Technology]] (SSUET) provides reputable training in biomedical engineering, civil engineering, electronics engineering, telecom engineering and computer engineering. [[Dawood College of Engineering and Technology]], which opened in 1962, offers degree programmes in electronic engineering, chemical engineering, industrial engineering, materials engineering and architecture. [[Karachi Institute of Economics & Technology]] (KIET) has two campuses in Karachi and has been growing rapidly since its inception in 1997. The Plastics Technology Center (PTC), located in Karachi's Korangi Industrial Area, is at present Pakistan's only educational institution providing training in the field of polymer engineering and plastics testing services.{{cite web|url=|title=Plastics Technology Centre||date=|accessdate=2010-05-06}} The [[Institute of Business Administration, Karachi|Institute of Business Administration]] (IBA), founded in 1955, is the oldest business school outside of North America. The [[Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology]] (SZABIST), founded in 1995 by [[Benazir Bhutto]], is located in Karachi, with its other campuses in Islamabad, Larkana and Dubai. [[Pakistan Navy Engineering College]] (PNEC) is a part of the [[National University of Sciences and Technology, Pakistan|National University of Sciences and Technology]] (NUST), offering a wide range of engineering programs, including electrical engineering and mechanical engineering. [[Hamdard University]] is the largest private university in Pakistan with faculties including Eastern Medicine, Medical, Engineering, Pharmacy, and Law. It has got Asia's second largest library called 'BAIT UL HIKMA'. [[Jinnah University for Women]] is the first women university in Pakistan. Karachi is home of the head offices of the [[Institute of Chartered Accountants of Pakistan]] (ICAP) (established in 1961) and the [[Institute of Cost and Management Accountants of Pakistan]] (ICMAP). Among the many other institutions providing business education are the [[Institute of Business Management]] (IoBM), [[SZABIST]], [[Iqra University]] and the Institute of Business and Technology (Biztek). Leading medical schools of Pakistan like the [[Dow University of Health Sciences]] and the [[Aga Khan University]] are situated in Karachi. [[PLANWEL]][] is another innovative institution it is a CISCO Network Academy as well as iCBT center for ETS Prometric and Pearsons VUE. [[Bahria University]] also has a purpose-built campus in Karachi. The College of Accounting and Management Sciences (CAMS) also has three branches in the city.Sindh Muslim Govt. Science College located at Saddar Town is the oldest college of Karachi.

For religious education, the [[Jamia Uloom ul Islamia, Banori Town, Karachi|Jamia Uloom ul Islamia]] (one of the largest Islamic education centres of Asia), [[Jamia Binoria]][ ]{{Dead link|date=May 2010}} and [[Darul 'Uloom Karachi]] are among the Islamic schools in Karachi.

{{Main|Transport in Karachi}}
[[File:Karachi Transport Network.png|thumb|left|300px|Map showing major roads, railway lines, ports and airports (Click to enlarge)]]

[[File:Nagan Ch Karachi.jpg|thumb|Nagan Interchange at Corridor II, is one of the busiest signal-free intersections in Karachi.]]
[[File:Hinopak Karachi 3.jpg|thumb|200px|right|CNG City Bus system in Karachi]]
Traffic problems and pollution are major challenges for Karachi. The level of air pollution in Karachi is significantly higher than [[World Health Organization]] standards.{{cite news|url=|title=The state of ambient air quality in Pakistan—a review|author=Ian Colbeck, Zaheer Ahmad Nasir and Zulfiqar Ali|accessdate=2010-07-15}} A number of new parks (e.g., [[Bagh Ibne Qasim]], [[Beach View Park]] and [[Jheel Park]]) have been developed and new trees are being planted in the city to improve the environment and reduce the pollution. The construction of new bridges/flyovers, underpasses and signal-free corridors (e.g., Corridor 1: S.I.T.E. to Shahrae Faisal, Corridor 2: North Karachi to Shahrae Faisal, Corridor 3: Safora Goth to Saddar) has improved the traffic flow in Karachi. The eventual completion of Corridor 4 (from the airport to Metropole Hotel) is expected to substantially reduce the travel time to reach the city centre and airport.

[[File:Karachi Cantt st 1.jpg|thumb|left|Karakoram Express departing to Lahore from [[Karachi Cantonment Railway Station|Karachi Cantt. Station]]]]
Karachi is linked by rail to the rest of the country by [[Pakistan Railways]]. The [[Karachi City Station]] and [[Karachi Cantonment Railway Station]] are the city's two major railway stations. The railway system handles a large amount of freight to and from the Karachi port and provides passenger services to people traveling up country. A project to transform the existing, but non-operational, [[Karachi Circular Railway]] into a modern mass transit system has recently been approved by the government. The $1.6 billion project will be financed by the [[Japan Bank for International Cooperation]] and will be completed by 2013. The city government has introduced an initiative to alleviate the transport pains by introducing new CNG buses.

[[Image:Karachi Jinnah Airport.jpg|thumb|200px|[[Jinnah International Airport]]]]
The [[Jinnah International Airport]] is located in Karachi. It is the largest and busiest airport of Pakistan. It handles 10 million [[passenger]]s a year. The airport receives the largest number of foreign [[airline]]s, a total of 35 airlines and cargo operators fly to Jinnah International predominantly from the Middle East and Southeast Asia. All of Pakistan's airlines use Karachi as their primary [[transport hub]] including PIA - [[Pakistan International Airlines]], [[Airblue]], and [[Shaheen Air International]]. The city's old [[airport terminal]]s are now used for [[Hajj]] flights, offices, cargo facilities, and ceremonial visits from [[head of state|heads of state]]. U.S. Coalition forces used the old terminals for their [[Military logistics|logistic]] supply operations as well. The city has two other [[airstrip]]s, used primarily by the [[armed forces]].

[[Image:Manora - Tallest Lighthouse of Pakistan P11008351.jpg|thumb|200px|Manora Light House]]
The largest shipping ports in Pakistan are the [[Port of Karachi]] and the nearby [[Port Qasim]]. These seaports have modern facilities and not only handle trade for Pakistan, but serve as ports for Afghanistan and the landlocked Central Asian countries. Plans have been announced for new passenger facilities at the Port of Karachi.{{cite web|url=|title=Projects|publisher=Karachi Port Trust|accessdate=2007-11-19}}

{{Main|Cinema in Karachi|List of television stations in Pakistan|List of magazines in Pakistan}}
Many of Pakistan’s independent television and radio channels are based in Karachi, including [[Dawn News]], [[Business Plus (TV Channel)|Business Plus]], [[Geo TV]], [[CNBC Pakistan]], [[Hum TV]], [[TV ONE (Pakistan)|TV ONE]], [[AAJ TV]], [[SAMAA TV]], [[ARY Digital]] , [[Indus Media Group|Indus Television Network]], [[Kawish Television Network]] (KTN) and [[Sindh TV]] as well as several local stations; local channels include Metro One and [[Good News TV]].

Pakistan's premier news television networks are based in Karachi, including [[GEO News]], [[ARY One World]], [[Dawn News]] and [[AAJ TV|AAJ News]]. [[AAG TV]] and [[MTV Pakistan]] are the main music television channels, and [[Business Plus (TV Channel)|Business Plus]] and [[CNBC Pakistan]] are the main business television channels based in the city. The bulk of Pakistan's periodical publishing industry is centred in Karachi, including magazines such as ''[[Spider (computer magazine)|Spider]]'', ''[[Herald (Pakistan)|The Herald]]'', ''Humsay'', ''[[The Cricketer (Pakistan)|The Cricketer]]'', ''[[Moorad Shipping News]]'', and ''The Internet''.

Major advertising companies including Interflow Communications, and Orient McCann Erickson have their head offices in Karachi.

==Health and medicine==
[[Image:Siut.jpg|thumb|[[Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation]]]]
{{Main|List of hospitals in Karachi}}
Karachi is a centre of research in biomedicine, with at least 30 public hospitals and more than 80 private hospitals, including the [[Karachi Institute of Heart Diseases]], [[National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases]] (NICVD), Spencer Eye Hospital, [[Civil Hospital]], [[PNS Rahat]], [[Abbasi Shaheed Hospital]], [[Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi|Aga Khan University Hospital]], [[Holy Family Hospital]] and [[Liaquat National Hospital]], as well as [[Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre]], [[Ziauddin Hospital]], [[South City Hospital]] and [[Lady Dufferin Hospital]]. Medical schools include the Dow Medical College, Aga Khan University, Liaquat National Medical College, Sindh Medical College, Baqai Medical College, Karachi Medical & Dental College, Jinnah Medical & Dental College, Hamdard College of Medicine & Dentistry, and Ziauddin Medical University.

==Sister cities==
*{{flagicon|Indonesia}} [[Jakarta]], [[Indonesia]]
*{{flagicon|China}} [[Shanghai]], [[People's Republic of China]], since 15 February 1984{{cite web
|publisher=Shanghai Foreign Affairs

*{{flagicon|Mauritius}} [[Port Louis]], [[Mauritius]] since 1 May 2007{{cite web|url=|title=Sister-city accord with Port Louis|publisher=Dawn Media Group|date=2007-05-01|accessdate=2010-08-26}}{{cite web|url=|title=Pakistan-Mauritius Bilateral Relations|publisher=Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Government of Pakistan|accessdate=2010-08-26}}
*{{flagicon|USA}} [[Houston]], United States since 8 May 2008{{cite web|url=|title=News Details|date=2009-05-08|publisher=City-District Government of Karachi|accessdate=2010-08-26}}{{cite web|url=|title=Houston-Karachi declared sister cities|date=2009-03-09|publisher=Dawn Media Group|accessdate=2010-08-26}} {{Dead link|date=October 2010|bot=H3llBot}}
*A twin city partnership with Chicago, United States, was contemplated and initiated in 2000, but was never implemented.{{cite web|url=|title=Karachi and Chicago to be Sister Cities|date=2005-04-07|publisher=Dawn Media Group|accessdate=2010-08-26}}
*There are proposals for Karachi and [[Mumbai]] to become twin cities because of the many similarities the cities share.{{cite web|url=|title=Declare Karachi and Mumbai sister cities|publisher=Express India|date=2008-05-08|accessdate=2010-05-06}}{{cite web|url=|title=Karachi is just like Mumbai!||accessdate=2010-05-06}}{{cite web|url=|title=Karachi, Mumbai be made sister cities|date=2009-05-09|accessdate=2010-08-26}}


File:Sea view karachi.jpg|Sea view
Image:Kashif Tasleem, [[File:Kashif Tasleem.jpg]]
Image:Mosque in DHA, Karachi.JPG|A mosque of [[Defence Housing Authority, Karachi|Defence Housing Authority]]
Image:Karachi Cinema.jpg|Millennium Mall
Image:Korangi Road Karachi.jpg|[[Korangi Road]]
Image:Chaukundi1.JPG|[[Chaukhandi tombs]]
Image:Karachi beach.jpeg|Karachi Beach
File:IICROAD.jpg|[[I. I. Chundrigar Road]]
File:2swds.jpg|The Do Talwaar (Two Swords) monument .
Image:Karachi St. Patricks Cathedral.jpg|[[Saint Patrick's Cathedral, Karachi|Saint Patrick's Cathedral]]
File:Kemari Boat Basin @ Karachi.jpg|[[Kiamari|Kemari Boat Basin]]
Image:FishingshipsatKarachiHarbour.JPG|Fishing boats at the [[Port of Karachi]]
Image:CNBC Pakistan HQ at night.jpg|TechnoCity Corporate Tower
Image:Karachi Mandir.jpg|[[Shri Swaminarayan Mandir, Karachi|Swaminarayan Temple]]
Image:Clifton beach karachi.jpg|[[Seaview, Clifton Beach]]
Image:Karachi at night.jpg|Night view of Karachi
File:Karachi ali 2010008 lrg.jpg|A view of Karachi from space

==See also==
{{Portal box|Karachi|Pakistan}}
*[[List of Sindhi people]]
*[[List of cemeteries in Karachi]]
*[[List of parks in Karachi]]
*[[List of people from Karachi District]]
*[[List of places in Karachi]]
*[[List of streets of Karachi]]


==Further reading==
*[ The issue of squatters on land needed for new projects]
*[ Karachi: Of encroachments and mega projects]

==External links==
{{Sister project links|Karachi|commons=Category:Karachi|s=1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Karachi}}
*[ Karachi City District Government]
*[] - historical and modern Karachi with photographs

{{Template group
|title=Articles related to Karachi
{{Karachi Towns}}
{{Neighbourhoods of Karachi}}
{{Districts of Sindh}}
{{Pakistan topics}}
{{Capitals in Pakistan}}
{{Million-plus cities in Pakistan}}
{{Pakistani cities}}
{{World's most populous metropolitan areas}}
{{World's most populous urban areas}}

[[Category:Capitals of Pakistan]]
[[Category:Cities of Pakistan]]
[[Category:Coastal cities and towns in Pakistan]]
[[Category:Former national capitals]]
[[Category:Karachi| ]]
[[Category:Metropolitan areas of Pakistan]]
[[Category:Populated places in Sindh]]
[[Category:Port cities and towns in Pakistan]]
[[Category:Ports and harbours of the Indian Ocean]]

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[[be:Горад Карачы]]
[[gl:Karachi - كراچى]]
[[ps:کراچۍ (ښار)]]

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